晚清甘肃地方政府对保安教案的处置

The Management of the Baoan Missionary Case on the Local Government of Gansu in the Late Qing Dynasty

作者: 专业:近现代史 导师:杨红伟 年度:2018 学位:硕士  院校: 兰州大学

Keywords

Baoan missionary case, The local government of Gansu, Management

        晚清时期,随着西方势力的不断深入,特别是在内地传教权的取得,以西方传教士与中国地方传统社会之间的矛盾为代表引发的教案愈来愈多。保安教案作为发生在藏边地区的代表性教案,其特殊性就在于:一方面,保安所属循化厅藏区的政教合一制度,已使藏传佛教的思想影响根深蒂固于蒙、藏、土等族民众的心理机构、行动方式与生活习惯等之中,西方传教士到来导致的文化与信仰冲突远较内地更为复杂;另一方面,受清朝在循化厅统治结构与统治策略的基本制度性安排的束缚,面对在区域社会中扮演魅力型权威角色的宗教领袖及其行政代言人的隆务昂索与部落头人,地方政府在教案的处置上所代表的国家权力就不能不受到地方社会传统权力的制约。因而,国家权力、宗教权力与传统部落权力以及传教士所代表的西方政治力量与宗教力量的多重博弈就显得更为复杂。保安教案与同一时期中国频发的教案,既具有共同的时代背景与国际国内环境,但又因发生在边疆少数民族地区独特的区域社会结构之中,不免有自己的特点。当传教士试图以保安堡为据点,向藏区布道时,文化冲突不可避免地产生,进而积累为群体性冲突。甘肃各级地方政府秉持竭力保护传教士的人身安全,大事化小,尽快弥合争端,避免事态扩大的基本原则,往环调处。但由于受到国家政权建设薄弱与地方传统势力的漠然处之,使教案的处置延宕近9个月,方以追还赃物、销没“汉土”名目最终结案。透过甘肃各级地方政府所代表的的国家权力与传教士、区域社会传统政教势力的多重博弈,可以看到,面对传教士,甘肃各级地方政府,不得不接受弱国无外交的现实;面对“南番”传统政教势力,同样需要考虑国家政权建设不足,国家权力影响不足、权威性不强导致的国家效能低下。而参与案件处理的各级官员,尚不具备探索管理传教士有效的方式,与因利势导地探索藏边社会宗教世俗化可能性途径的主动性。
    In the late qing period,along with the deepening of the western powers,especially the right of missionary work in the mainland,The conflict between western missionaries and Chinese traditional societies is an increasing number of missionary cases.Baoan missionary cases as the representation of the missionary cases occurred at the edge of the Tibetan region,its particularity lies in:On the one hand,the system of integrating politics with religion in the Tibetan areas of the reformatory under the Baoan guard has deeply rooted the thoughts of Tibetan Buddhism in the psychological institutions,ways of action and living habits of the people of the Mongolian,Tibetan and Turkish communities,The cultural and religious conflicts caused by the arrival of western missionaries are far more complicated than those in the mainland.On the other hand,under the rules of the Qing dynasty,the ruling structure and the basic institutional arrangements of the dominant strategy.In the face of the religious leaders and their administrative spokesmen who play the role of charismatic authority in the regional society,Lombard and tribesmen.Represented by a local government in the lesson plan on the disposal of the state power is restricted by local traditional social power.Therefore,the multiple games between state power,religious power and traditional tribal power and western political power and religious power represented by missionaries are more complicated.Baoan missionary case with the same period of missionary case in China,both has the common era background and international and domestic environment,but also because in frontier minority areas have specific areas of the social structure,inevitably has its own characteristics.When the missionaries tried to preach to the Tibetan areas with the Baoan fort as their stronghold,cultural conflicts inevitably emerged,which then accumulated into group conflicts.Local governments at all levels of Gansu province,adhering to the basic principle of trying their best to protect the personal safety of missionaries,minimize major incidents,bridge disputes as soon as possible,and avoid the escalation of the situation.However,due to the weakconstruction of the state power and the indifference of local traditional forces,the handling of the missionary case was delayed for nearly 9 months,and the case was finally concluded with the name of "hantu".Through the multiple games between the state power represented by the local governments at all levels in Gansu and the missionaries and the traditional political and religious forces in the regional Baoan,it can be seen that facing the missionaries,the local governments at all levels in Gansu have to accept the reality that the weak countries have no diplomacy.In the face of the traditional church of the “south minority”,you also need to consider the lack of national power,the lack of power in the state,the lack of authority and the inefficiency of the country.And the people involved in the case,they don’t have the ability to explore the way that the missionaries are effective,and the initiative to explore the possibilities of social religious secularization in the land of inlay.
        

晚清甘肃地方政府对保安教案的处置

摘要3-4
Abstract4-5
第一章 绪论7-14
    第一节 选题意义7-8
    第二节 研究方法8-9
    第三节 学术史回顾及说明9-14
第二章 保安教案的社会历史背景14-23
    第一节 保安的社会历史背景14-20
        (一)保安地区的机构设置沿革14-17
        (二)保安所属区域的自然环境17-18
        (三)保安地区的政教背景18-20
    第二节 宣道会进入保安地区20-23
第三章 保安教案与甘肃地方政府的处置23-38
    第一节 僖德生初来保安23-24
    第二节 保安教案的过程24-29
    第三节 追赃过程中的博弈29-38
第四章 处理结果及其究底38-45
    第一节 保安教案的处置结果38-41
    第二节 保安教案的处置探析41-45
结语45-47
参考文献47-53
致谢53
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