日本九州地区出土弥生时期青铜器的整理与研究

Classification and Studies on Yayoi Period’s Bronze Wares from Kyushu District in Japan

作者: 专业:文物与博物馆 导师:张闻捷 年度:2017 学位:硕士  院校: 厦门大学

Keywords

Yayoi Period, Bronze wares, Sacrificing phenomenon, Breaking mirror phenomenon

        人类历史根据使用工具的材质不同,可以划分为石器时代、青铜器时代、铁器时代。而日本则是从石器时代突然进入铁器时代,但是据考古发掘材料表明,日本也确实经历过使用青铜器的繁盛时期,这个时期被日本考古学界称为弥生时代。日本出土青铜器的起源也是日本考古界所一直关注的问题,目前有很多学者认为日本青铜文化主要是受北方草原青铜文化的影响。本文主要根据已掌握的考古发掘材料和历史文献资料,运用考古学的基本理论与方法,对日本九州地区出土弥生时期青铜器,特别以剑、矛、戈为代表的青铜武器和铜镜、铜镯等青铜共出器具进行整理汇编,并在此基础上对其进行型式划分。其次结合共出的石器、陶器、相关器物以及前人的研究成果,对日本九州地区出土弥生时期青铜器进行分期和年代判定。目前看来九州地区出土弥生时期青铜器可以分为三期,其中一期为弥生前期(公元前800年至公元前400年)、二期为弥生中期(公元前400年至公元50年)、三期为弥生后期(公元50年至公元350年)。最后在此基础上,利用考古学文化因素对青铜器的祭祀化现象和毁镜现象进行探讨。日本青铜器祭祀化现象为近年来日本学者讨论的重点,大多数日本学者认为青铜铎作为日本本土特有的青铜器,其出现就作为祭祀用的现象是很明确的,而作为外传进入日本的青铜剑、矛等武器类青铜器,最初则是作为实用器具而后才逐渐转变为祭祀之用。到了弥生后期兼具青铜武器和青铜铎特征的青铜镜成为了祭祀的主要器型。毁镜作为一种特殊现象,在弥生时期逐渐形成一种社会习俗,成为日本青铜器研究的方向之一。总而言之,青铜器作为一种与社会发展紧密联系的物品传入日本,对日本的社会组织和人民生活都产生了重大影响,也值得进一步的进行探讨。
    Human history could be divided into the Stone Age,the Bronze Age and the Iron Age according to the texture of the tools.As for Japan,its Iron Age followed the Stone Age directly.However,the materials of archaeological excavation show that a certain Bronze Age did happen in Japanese history,which is named as Yayoi Period in Japanese archaeology.The Japanese archaeologists.also concern about the origins of the bronze wares in Yayoi Period,and many scholars think that the Japanese bronze culture was influenced by those in Northern Steppe.The thesis collects the bronze weapons like sword,spear,dagger-axe and bronze wares like bronze mirror,bronze bracelet according to the archaeological excavations and historical documents,and classifies their types with the basic theories and methods of archaeology.Then divides the periods and judges the ages of the bronze wares in Yayoi Period’s Kyushu District on the basis of related academic achivements about stone implement,pottery,and other implements.So far,the bronze wares in Kyushu District could be divided into three periods,namely early Yayoi Period(from 800 BC to 400 BC),interim Yayoi Period(from 400 BC to 50 AD)and later Yayoi Period(from 50 AD to 350 AD).At last,the thesis analyzes the sacrificing phenomenon and the breaking mirror phenomenon with archaeological-cultural factors.The sacrificing phenomenon of Japanese bronze wares has already been emphasized by the Japanese scholars,and most of them think that bronze Duo as a type of special bronze ware in Japan could certainly be used in sacrifice.While bronze weapons like sword or spear from abroad were first used as practical tools and then turned to sacrificing tools.Bronze mirror in the later stage of Yayoi Period combined the functions of bronze weapon and bronze Duo became the main tool of sacrifice.Breaking mirror was a special phenomenon that in Yayoi Period it had became a certain social custom,which is of great importance in Japanese bronze wares studies.In conclusion,bronze wares were related with Japanese society since its introduction to Japan,and it impacted the Japanese social organization and life deeply.The above-mentioned contents deserve further studying.
        

日本九州地区出土弥生时期青铜器的整理与研究

中文摘要4-5
ABSTRACT5-6
绪言11-19
    一、选题缘由与研究意义11-12
    二、研究综述12-15
        1. 国内关于日本青铜器研究12
        2. 日本国内学者有关青铜器的研究12-15
    三、研究范围与研究对象15-17
        1. 研究范围15-17
        2. 研究对象17
    四、研究方法与研究目的17-19
        1. 研究方法17
        2. 研究目的17-19
第一章 九州主要地区出土弥生时期青铜器整理19-26
    一、福冈县19-21
    二、熊本县21-22
    三、长崎县22-23
    四、佐贺县23-26
第二章 九州地区出土弥生时期青铜器的类型分析26-43
    一、青铜武器类26-33
        1. 青铜剑26-29
        2. 青铜矛29-30
        3. 青铜戈30-32
        4. 青铜镞32-33
    二、其他器型33-43
        1. 青铜镜33-36
        2. 青铜镯36-37
        3. 青铜铎37-38
        4. 青铜锄38-39
        5. 青铜指环39
        6. 青铜扣39-40
        7. 巴形青铜器40-41
        8. 铜钱41
        9. 青铜剑把头饰41-42
        10. 不明器型42-43
第三章 九州地区出土弥生时期青铜器的分期与年代43-55
    一、青铜器的分期43-45
        1. 一期43
        2. 二期43-44
        3. 三期44-45
    二、铜器的年代推断45-55
        1. 一期的年代判定45-46
        2. 二期的年代判定46-47
        3. 三期的年代判定47-55
第四章 九州地区出土青铜器的相关问题探讨55-65
    一、祭祀化现象55-60
    二、毁镜现象60-65
结语65-68
参考文献68-73
致谢73-74
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