淮河中下游地区距今7000-5000年出土陶器的科技研究

Study on the Technology of Pottery Unearthed in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Huaihe River between 7000 and 5000 Years Ago

作者: 专业:文物与博物馆学专业硕士(专业学位) 导师:魏国锋 年度:2018 学位:硕士  院校: 安徽大学

Keywords

Middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River, Manufacturing process, Black pottery, Painted pottery

        中国腹地的考古学文化长期被考古学界笼统的分为黄河流域和长江流域两大文化系统。淮河流域地处黄河与长江之间,整片流域东临黄海,西源桐柏、伏牛两山,南以大别山、通扬运河、如泰运河与长江比邻,北屏黄河南堤和泰山为界同时和黄河流域接壤,三面环山一面临海的地形使其成为一个独立的地域单元。但淮河区域的文化还是一并被分为两个部分,黄河流域文化占据淮河以北,淮河以南则纳入长江流域文化。新中国成立后淮河流域各地出现了一系列重要的考古发现,积累了大量的资料。根据这些资料,考古学家如高广仁、邵望平等人对此展开研究,发现淮河流域确实存在一个独立于黄河和长江两大流域文化系统之外的史前文化系统,它与黄河文化系统和长江文化系统呈平分天下之势。随着考古资料的相继发表,淮河地区新石器文化发展脉络日渐清晰,学术界对该地区各文化的年代学分析及比较研究表现出浓厚的兴趣。本文以淮河中下游地区距今7000-5000年时期的主要遗址出土陶器为研究对象,采用X射线荧光光谱仪、超景深三维显微镜、X射线衍射仪、热膨胀仪、拉曼光谱仪、扫描电镜等多种技术手段,对其进行岩相、物相、元素成分、烧成温度等方面的分析检测,在此基础上,探讨其原料特点、制作工艺和产地等相关问题,以期为淮河中下游流域的考古学研究提供更多的科学依据。主要研究结果如下:(1)样品基质中很少发现较大颗粒的矿屑、岩屑,表明淮河中下游流域距今7000-5000年时期制作陶器时已普遍对陶土进行淘洗。(2)根据实验表明,淮河中下游流域各遗址的羼和陶中所含的羼和料较多,推测均为人工掺合,根据羼和料的种类可将此区域的羼和陶笼统分为夹砂陶、夹蚌陶和加云母陶,其中夹蚌陶均为密实陶。(3)史前时期人们烧制陶器所使用的原料一般为就地取土,淮河中下游流域不同遗址烧制陶器时所使用的原料内包含物基本相同,可推断淮河中下游流域距今7000-5000年时期所处的地质环境基本相似。(4)根据夹蚌陶器中方解石的普遍存在,结合热膨胀仪的分析结果,初步推测这一时期侯家寨遗址陶器的烧成温度范围在800-850℃之间,最高不会超过900℃。(5)新石器时代淮河中下游地区的彩陶工艺已比较成熟,彩陶中红彩和黑彩两种彩最为常见,经鉴定红彩为赤铁矿,黑彩为炭黑。(6)万北遗址黑陶采用渗炭工艺烧制而成,表明距今7000-5000年时期淮河中下游地区的古代先民已掌握了渗碳工艺。
    For a long time,archaeological circles in China have only divided archaeological culture in hinterland of China into two major systems,namely,Reaches of Yellow River and Yangtze River Basin,and at the same time they have also divided Huaihe River Basin which is located between Yellow River and Yangtze River into sea independently.North of Huaihe River belongs to Reaches of Yellow River,and south of Huaihe River to Yangtze River Basin.In terms of topography,Huaihe River Basin is bounded by Yellow Sea in east,Tongbai Mountain and Funiu Mountain in west,and Dabie Mountain,Jianghuai Hill,Tongyang Canal and South Embankment in Rutai Canal as well as Yangtze River in south,and Reaches of Yellow River in south of Beiping Yellow River and Mount Tai.Topography of three sides surrounding mountains and one side of sea makes Huaihe River basin an independent regional unit.From cultural point of view,after founding of New China,a series of important archaeological discoveries appeared in various parts of Huaihe River basin,and a large amount of data were accumulated.According to these data,archaeologists such as Gao Guangren,Shao Wangping and others began to study this,and found that there is a relatively independent prehistoric cultural system in Huaihe River basin,which is in the same situation as Yellow River culture and Yangtze River cultural system.With publication of archaeological data,development of Neolithic culture in Jianghuai area has become clear,and academic circles have shown great interest in chronological analysis and comparative study of various cultures in this area.In this paper,pottery unearthed from main sites in middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River during period of 7000-5000 years is taken as research object.Lithofacies,material facies,elemental composition,sintering temperature and so on are analyzed and examinedby using three dimensional system of hyperfield,X-ray diffractometer,Raman spectrometer,X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,thermal expansion instrument,scanning electron microscope etc.,.On basis of this,characteristics of raw materials,manufacturing process and producing area are discussed in order to provide more scientific basis for archaeological research in middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River.Main results are as follows:(1)Large particles of ore debris and lithic debris are rarely found in substrate of samples,which indicates that pottery has been generally washed when making pottery in middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River during period of 7000-5000 years.(2)According to experiments,mixing and mixing materials in various sites and pottery sites in middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River are much more,and all of them are presumed to be artificial admixtures.According to types of mixing and mixing materials,mixing and pottery in this area can be divided into sand,clam and mica ceramics in general.Among them clam pottery is dense pottery.(3)raw materials contained in pottery from different sites in middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River are basically the same,so it can be inferred that ecological environment of middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River is basically similar during period of 7000-5000 years.(4)According to widespread existence of calcite in clam pottery and analysis results of thermal expansion instrument,it is preliminarily speculated that firing temperature of pottery in Houjiazhai ruin basin in this period is 800-850 ℃,and highest temperature is not more than 900 ℃.(5)Middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River in Neolithic Age were hematite,and black color was carbon black.Local color pottery technology has been relatively mature,red and black color in color pottery are the most common through identification of red ancient painted pottery.(6)Black pottery of Wanbei site was fired by charring technology,indicating that ancient ancestors in middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River had mastered Carburizing process during period of 7000-5000 years.
        

淮河中下游地区距今7000-5000年出土陶器的科技研究

摘要4-6
Abstract6-7
第一章 绪论11-21
    1.1 古陶瓷的历史发展回顾11-13
    1.2 中国古陶瓷的科技考古发展13-15
    1.3 陶瓷考古常用分析方法15-19
        1.3.1 X射线荧光光谱分析(XRF)15-16
        1.3.2 X射线衍射分析(XRD)16-17
        1.3.3 拉曼光谱分析17
        1.3.4 热膨胀分析17-18
        1.3.5 陶器的显微结构分析18-19
    1.4 研究意义及内容19-21
        1.4.1 研究意义19-20
        1.4.2 研究内容20-21
第二章 淮河流域中下地区距今7000-5000年主要文化遗址概述21-26
    2.1 侯家寨文化22-23
        2.1.1 侯家寨遗址发掘情况22
        2.1.2 侯家寨文化概述22-23
    2.2 万北文化23-24
        2.2.1 万北遗址发掘情况23-24
        2.2.2 万北文化概述24
    2.3 青莲岗文化24-26
        2.3.1 青莲岗遗址发掘情况24-25
        2.3.2 青莲岗文化概述25-26
第三章 淮河流域中下游陶器产地研究及羼和陶的制作工艺26-62
    3.1 样品介绍26-32
    3.2 实验方法及仪器32
    3.3 结果与讨论32-61
        3.3.1 X射线荧光分析32-41
            3.3.1.1 样品处理32-33
            3.3.1.2 实验结果及分析33-41
        3.3.2 岩相分析41-51
            3.3.2.1 样品制备41-42
            3.3.2.2 实验结果与分析42-51
        3.3.3 X射线衍射分析51-56
            3.3.3.1 样品制备51-52
            3.3.3.2 实验结果及分析52-56
        3.3.4 拉曼光谱分析56-59
            3.3.4.1 样品制备56
            3.3.4.2 实验结果及分析56-59
        3.3.5 烧成温度分析59-61
            3.3.5.1 样品制备59
            3.3.5.2 实验结果及分析59-61
    3.4 本章小结61-62
第四章 淮河流域中下游地区黑陶和彩陶的制作工艺研究62-74
    4.1 彩陶及黑陶的研究现状62-63
    4.2 彩陶及黑陶的制作工艺研究样品介绍63-64
    4.3 实验设备64
    4.4 结果分析64-73
        4.4.1 超景深三维显微系统64-67
        4.4.2 拉曼光谱分析67-69
        4.4.3 扫描电镜(SEM-DES)69-72
        4.4.4 重烧实验72-73
    4.5 本章小结73-74
第五章 结论74-76
参考文献76-79
致谢79-80
攻读学位期间发表的论文80
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