“南长城”沿线军事聚落防御性研究

Study on the Defensibility of Military Fortress Alone "The Southern Great Wall"

作者: 专业:工程硕士(专业学位) 导师:余翰武 年度:2017 学位:硕士  院校: 湖南科技大学

Keywords

“ The southern Great Wall”, Military Fortress, Defensibility

        纵观传统聚落的发展史,防御工事的修建为聚落的形成壮大提供了动力,依托防御工事而形成的聚落并不在少数。在我国的明清时期,疆域的广阔使得边境地区的管理鞭长莫及。统治者为了更有效的管理边疆地区,防止敌寇的侵扰,修筑边墙用以阻隔,形成坚固的军事防御体系。众所周知,我国北方的万里长城已经成为了中国文明的象征,其沿线著名的军事聚落——“九边重镇”是我国传统聚落文化遗产中的瑰宝。而在我国的南方地区,也存在着“南长城”,虽然它没有“万里长城”的美誉,但也是中国历史上工程浩大的古代建筑工程之一。“南长城”历经四百年的反复修建完善,逐步形成具有时代特征的军事防御体系,沿线也由此产生了大量的军事聚落。这些聚落是这一时期该地区民族冲突的历史见证,其所形成的聚落形态和建筑特征充分反映了当时的防御特点,具有强烈的时代特点和地域特征。尽管“南长城”目前只留下部分边墙遗迹,大多军事聚落历经岁月洗涤已丧失原本面貌,但仍可以从其不多的遗迹遗址窥探昔日的威严盛状。对“南长城”及沿线的军事聚落的研究,可为了解当地传统聚落和建筑形态,挖掘地域文化提供可借鉴的资料,也为继承和发展传统建筑文化提供有价值的参考。本文主要以“南长城”沿线地区的军事聚落为研究对象,从聚落的防御性角度出发,梳理“南长城”及其沿线军事聚落的形成过程,分析明清时期的军事管理体制,以及由此建立的“南长城”沿线军事聚落的防御体系。论文对聚落选址中的防御要素进行了分析,通过举例说明的方法对其军事防御设施中的防御性进行阐述,概括其在聚落空间和建筑形态上的表现形式,归纳总结“南长城”沿线军事聚落的防御性特征。
    Throughout the history of traditional settlements,the construction of fortifications provided the impetus for the formation and growth of settlements,and the settlements formed by fortifications are not in the minority.During the Ming and Qing dynasties,the border management are beyond reach because of the vast territory.In order to more effective management and preventing the intrusion,the rulers formed a strong military defense system by building walls.As everyone knows,the Great Wall in the north of our country has become a symbol of Chinese civilization,and its famous military settlements along the line—— “nine defense areas” are the treasures of the traditional Chinese cultural heritage.there is also “the southern Great Wall” in the southern part of China,although it is not known as the "Great Wall",it is also one of the great ancient architectural works in Chinese history.After four hundred years of repeated construction and perfection,“the southern Great Wall” has gradually formed a military defense system with the characteristics of The Times,which has produced a large number of military settlements along the route.These settlements are the regional ethnic conflict and struggle during this period of history,the formation of human settlements and construction characteristics fully reflect the defensive characteristics,with strong characteristics of times and regional features.Although "the southern Great Wall" at present the partial wall ruins,leaving only mostly military settlement after years of washing has lost the original appearance,but still can from the few relics sites see the majesty of former shape.Through the study of "the southern Great Wall" and military settlements along the route,can providing referential data to understanding the form of the local traditional settlements and architectures,digging the regional culture,for inheriting and developing the traditional architectural culture also provide valuable reference.Based on the study object of military fortress along “The southern Great Wall” and the defensibility about fortress.This paper comb the formation process of "the southern Great Wall" and military fortress along,but also analysis of the Ming and Qing dynasties military management system,thus establish the "The southern Great Wall" of military fortress along the defense system.Thesis are analyzed defense elements of site selection of settlement.The paper through the method of an example to expounding the defensive of its military defense facilities,also summarized the forms in the settlement space and architecture,summarized the defensive characteristics of "the southern Great Wall" of military fortress along.
        

“南长城”沿线军事聚落防御性研究

摘要5-6
Abstract6-7
第1章 绪论10-20
    1.1 研究的背景、目的与意义10-12
        1.1.1 研究的背景10
        1.1.2 研究的目的10
        1.1.3 研究的意义10-12
    1.2 研究范围界定12
    1.3 研究现状分析12-14
        1.3.1 有关军事聚落的研究现状12-13
        1.3.2 有关“南长城”及其沿线聚落的研究现状13-14
    1.4 研究方法与论文框架14-20
        1.4.1 研究方法14-16
        1.4.2 论文框架16-20
第2章 “南长城”防线的形成历程20-26
    2.1 历史背景分析20-21
    2.2 “南长城”防线的初构21-23
        2.2.1 “二十四堡”21
        2.2.2 “十三哨”21-22
        2.2.3 大修边墙22-23
    2.3 “南长城”防线的破坏23
        2.3.1 明末战争对“南长城”的破坏23
        2.3.2 乾嘉苗民大起义的再次破坏23
    2.4 “南长城”防线的再次形成23-24
    2.5 小结24-26
第3章 “南长城”防线防御体系分析26-34
    3.1 明清时期军事管理机制26-27
        3.1.1 明朝军事管理机制26
        3.1.2 清朝军事管理机制26-27
    3.2 明清“南长城”防线军事体制结构27-28
        3.2.1 明朝时期“南长城”防线军事体制结构27
        3.2.2 清朝时期“南长城”防线军事体制结构27-28
    3.3 “南长城”防线防御体系层级分析28-32
        3.3.1 统领指挥场所29
        3.3.2 屯兵、囤粮场所29
        3.3.3 瞭望、战斗场所29-30
        3.3.4 凤凰厅防御体系层级分析30-32
    3.4 小结32-34
第4章 “南长城”沿线军事聚落空间分布的防御性34-42
    4.1 “南长城”地理空间还原34-35
    4.2 明朝时期“南长城”沿线军事聚落空间分布35-38
    4.3 清朝时期“南长城”沿线军事聚落空间分布38-40
    4.4 小结40-42
第5章 “南长城”沿线军事聚落选址的防御性42-49
    5.1 因形就势,隐秘于山水42-45
        5.1.1 “南长城”沿线的山水概况42
        5.1.2 “以山为屏”——以喜鹊营为例42-44
        5.1.3 “以水为御”——以振武营为例44-45
    5.2 交通要塞,兵家必争45-48
        5.2.1 镇溪所 ——“南长城”中段水陆重要关口46-47
        5.2.2 喜鹊营 ——“南长城”沿线的“咽喉”关口47-48
    5.3 小结48-49
第6章 “南长城”沿线军事聚落军事设施的防御性49-60
    6.1 外围整体防御49-56
        6.1.1 哨堡50-51
        6.1.2 护城河51
        6.1.3 城墙51-54
        6.1.4 城门、城楼54-56
    6.2 内部街巷防御56-58
        6.2.1 街巷空间56-57
        6.2.2 街巷立面57-58
        6.2.3 街巷铺设材质58
    6.3 单体建筑的防御性58-59
    6.4 小结59-60
第7章 结语60-62
参考文献62-64
附录A 攻读学位期间发表的论文与科研成果清单64-66
致谢66
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