伊文斯在克诺索斯王宫遗址的早期考古活动研究

A Study of the Early Archaeological Activities at the Palace of Knossos by Arthur Evans

作者: 专业:考古学史 导师:王冀青 年度:2018 学位:硕士  院校: 兰州大学

Keywords

Arthur J.Evans, The Palace of Knossos, Archaeological Activities

        亚瑟·约翰·伊文斯(Arthur John Evans,1851—1941),英国考古学家,终身致力于发掘克里特岛的史前遗址,尤其是克诺索斯王宫遗址,在基于大量发掘和资料整理的前提下,首次命名了米诺斯文明并研究判定其年代范围和文化性质,进一步梳理了爱琴文明序列。伊文斯在克诺索斯王宫遗址及周边区域发掘工作持续了三十年,取得重要成果。早期发掘也是最重要的发掘自1900开始,至1905年结束。发掘总面积达到2.2万平方米,揭露出千余所房屋,辨别了王宫遗址的范围和布局,发掘了大量克里特岛青铜文明时代的遗物,并根据遗址地层和陶器样式及纹饰的变化确定了米诺斯文明的相对年代分期。同时,伊文斯参考有纪年的古埃及王国的年代来确定米诺斯文明的绝对年代。此外,伊文斯还根据遗址房间的样式、壁画内容和出土物的不同,将王宫区分为西翼的祭祀区和东翼的家居区,从而进一步提出“祭司王”理论。伊文斯在克诺索斯王宫的考古发掘在当时来说,是一次较为严谨科学的考古发掘活动。伊文斯及其助手对发掘现场和出土器物做了较为详细的考古记录,还聘请专业的建筑师和画师绘制建筑平剖面图、辨认和修复壁画。此外,伊文斯有选择性的对一些遗存做了修复工作。伊文斯的研究成果至今仍是米诺斯文明的权威,发掘出土的文物也被伊拉克里翁考古博物馆和英国牛津大学阿什莫林博物馆收藏,他的1900—1905年度考古发掘报告和四卷本考古著作《克诺索斯的米诺斯王宫》是研究克诺索斯王宫和米诺斯文明的学者案头必备之物。伊文斯是当之无愧的克诺索斯王宫遗址和米诺斯文明研究的奠基人。
    Arthur J.Evans,British archaeologist,who was devoted his life to excavating and studying the Minoan Civilization of the Crete,especially in the Palace of Knossos.Under the premise of a large number of excavations and data compilations,the Minoan Civilization was named for the first time by Evans.In addition,Evans has also discussed about the chronology and the character of Minoan Civilization.Evans has been excavating the site of Knossos and surrounding areas for 30 years.The most important excavation started from 1900,which ended in 1905.The excavation had a total area of 22,000 square meters,revealing more than 1000 houses,identifying the scope and layout of the palace,excavating a large number of relics of the Bronze Age of Crete.According to the changes of the site strata、pottery patterns,he divided Minoan Civilization into three stages.At the same time,Evans identified the absolute age of the Minoan Civilization with reference to the age of the Ancient Egyptian Dynasty.In addition,Evans also classified the Palace as a sacrifice area in the west wing and a home area in the east wing according to the style of the room,the content of the murals,and the unearthed objects,thus further proposing the theory of "Priest King".The excavation at the Palace of Knossos by Arthur Evans was a rigorous archaeological excavtion at that time.Evans has a detailed record on the scene of the excavation and formation of unearthed artifacts,also hired specialized architects to make the plan of the Palace,to identify and repair murals.Evans has repaired some of the ruins selectively.The work of Evans is still the authority of the Minoan Civilization,and the artifacts that he excavated were also collected by the Museum of Heraklion and the Ashmaureen Museum in the University of Oxford in England.Reports of the archaeological excavation from 1900 to 1905 and the huge book the Palace of Minos in Knossos is the necessary thing for the scholars of studying the Palace of Knossos and the Minoan Civilization.Evans was a well-deserved founder in the area of studying the Palace of Knossos and the Minoan Civilization
        

伊文斯在克诺索斯王宫遗址的早期考古活动研究

中文摘要3-4
Abstract4
绪论7-12
    一 研究背景及意义7-8
    二 研究现状8-11
    三 研究方法11-12
第一章 伊文斯与克诺索斯王宫12-21
    第一节 正式发掘前的克诺索斯王宫12-16
    第二节 伊文斯的早期经历16-21
        一 良好的家庭环境16
        二 丰富的野外经历16-18
        三 探查克里特岛18-21
第二章 1900—1902年的考古发掘21-35
    第一节 1900年的考古发掘21-26
    第二节 1901年的考古发掘26-32
    第三节 1902年的考古发掘32-35
第三章 1903—1905年的考古发掘35-43
    第一节 1903年的考古发掘35-37
    第二节 1904-1905年的考古发掘37-39
    第三节 后续发掘39-43
第四章 早期考古发掘成果43-59
    第一节 建筑与壁画43-49
        一 克诺索斯王宫建筑及其特点43-44
        二 克诺索斯王宫的性质44-45
        三 克诺索斯王宫的壁画45-49
    第二节 印章与文字49-51
        一 印章的历史49
        二 文字的历史49-51
    第三节 陶器51-55
        一 早期陶器51-53
        二 新宫殿时期的陶器53-54
        三 后宫殿时期的陶器54-55
    第四节 其他出土物55-59
        一 牙雕55-56
        二 石雕56-59
第五章 伊文斯发掘的价值与意义59-71
    第一节 组建优秀的考古团队61-66
    第二节 运用科学的考古方法66-68
    第三节 形成先进的考古学理念68-69
    第四节 发掘中存在的问题69-71
结语71-73
参考文献73-76
在学期间研究成果76-77
致谢77
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