伊东忠太与中国建筑考古学的起源

Itō Chūta and the Origin of Architectural Archaeology of China

作者: 专业:考古学史 导师:王冀青 年度:2018 学位:硕士  院校: 兰州大学

Keywords

Itō Chūta, Architectural Archaeology, origin, influence

        二十世纪初,以日本政府近代以来对华政策为背景,日本学术界从各自的角度对中国进行了大量的实地考察和研究,客观上传播了国外先进的学术方法。近代日本建筑史学家伊东忠太(ItōChūta,1867-1954)在二十世纪上半叶,运用考古学和人类学田野调查的方法,先后多次前往中国实地考察,历时半个世纪,足迹遍布全国各地。伊东忠太在大量实地考察的基础上,通过一系列学术著作第一次建立了中国建筑史的学科体系,并且将其放在亚洲建筑体系的视野下力争与当时西方学者主导的建筑研究相抗衡,成为当时世界上最权威的中国传统建筑研究专家。随后以中央研究院历史与语言研究所为代表的考古学和以中国营造学社为代表的建筑学作为中国的本土学术力量崛起,各自从考古学与建筑学的角度,以考古发掘、建筑实测为基础,沿着考古和古建筑两条脉络开始了独自研究的新局面,并且在二十世纪中叶完成学科融合,形成建筑考古这一学科。在中国建筑考古学的发展初期,以营造学社为代表的建筑学界深受伊东忠太的学术影响,后者所开创的古建筑田野调查、木结构建筑实测为我国的建筑研究引入了先进的学科方法;伊东忠太的前期研究、中国建筑史体系和中国建筑史观的建立为我国自身的学科起源奠定了基础,间接参与了近代中国自身建筑考古学的建构。总结中国建筑考古的起源,近代在引入西方学科体系的过程中,考古学和建筑学先后传入中国,在本土学术研究尚属空白的早期阶段,最初由国外学者强势主导中国学科的话语体系,并影响着中国学者早期的学术研究。但是国外学者对中国建筑和考古的研究不论在深度还是广度上都是一知半解,甚至有失偏颇,但我们仍要肯定其客观上对我国自身学科发展中起到的作用。另一方面,在接受外来影响的同时,中国自身的学术力量也逐渐成长起来。随着以中央研究院历史与语言研究所和中国营造学社为代表的一批自身学术力量的诞生,中国学者奋起直追,逐渐建立了自己的学科体系。本论文以历史为背景,时间为脉络,试图对伊东忠太的建筑考察和研究作为关注点,探讨其在中国建筑考古学起源过程中的影响。
    In the early twentieth Century,in the background of the Japanese policy to China in modern times,the Japanese academic circles carried out a lot of field investigation and Research on China from their respective angles,and objectively spread the advanced academic methods abroad.In the process,modern archaeology and architecture were introduced into China.On the other hand,while accepting foreign influence,China’s own academic power has gradually grown up.Chinese scholars have started to build up their own discipline system.In the first half of the twentieth Century,Itō Chūta(1867-1954),a historian of Japanese architecture,traveled to China many times in the first half of the twentieth Century,using archaeological and anthropological field survey methods.It lasted half a century and was covered all over the country.On the basis of a large number of field investigations,Itō Chūta established the system of Chinese architectural history for the first time through a series of academic works,and put it under the view of the Asian architecture system to fight against the architecture research dominated by western scholars at that time,and became the most authoritative expert of Chinese traditional architecture research in the world at that time.Subsequently,the archeology,represented by the history and Language Institute of the Central Institute of research and the architecture represented by the Chinese construction society as the local academic strength of China,have been studied on the basis of archaeological excavations and architectural observations from the archaeological and architectural perspectives,along the two veins of Archaeology and ancient architecture.The new situation,and the completion of disciplinary integration in the middle of twentieth Century,has led to the formal development of Architectural Archaeology.In the early stage of the development of Chinese Architectural Archaeology,the architectural circle represented by liang thought was deeply influenced by Itō Chūta ’s academic influence.The field investigation and the wood structure building measured by the latter introduced the advanced discipline method to the architectural research of our country.The early study of Ito Chuta,the system of Chinese architecture history and the establishment of Chinese architectural history have laid a foundation for the origin of our own discipline,and indirectly participated in the construction of modern Chinese Architectural Archaeology.This paper,taking time as the context and taking history as the background,tries to discuss the influence of Itō Chūta ’s architectural investigation and Research on the origin of Chinese Architectural Archaeology.
        

伊东忠太与中国建筑考古学的起源

摘要3-4
Abstract4-5
绪论7-12
    一、伊东忠太的早期学术背景7-9
    二、研究现状和意义9-11
    三、研究思路和方法11-12
第一章 伊东忠太对中国建筑的前期考察12-50
    第一节 1901年在北京的建筑考察12-18
    第二节 1902年在天津-大同-北京沿线的建筑考察18-27
    第三节 1902年在北京-郑州-西安沿线的建筑考察27-31
    第四节 1902年在西安-成都-汉口沿线的建筑考察31-36
    第五节 1903年在汉口-贵阳-昆明沿线的建筑考察36-50
第二章 伊东忠太对中国建筑的后期考察50-67
    第一节 1905年在辽宁地区的建筑考察50-57
    第二节 1907年在苏浙赣地区的建筑考察57-60
    第三节 1910年在广东地区的建筑考察60-64
    第四节 1920年在山东地区的建筑考察64-67
第三章 伊东忠太在中国建筑考古学起源过程中的作用67-92
    第一节 对中国建筑的科学定位68-73
    第二节 建立中国建筑史的学科体系73-81
    第三节 引入考古学的田野调查方法81-89
    第四节 与中国学者的学术交流89-92
结语92-94
参考文献94-97
在学期间研究成果97-98
致谢98
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